Understand how bacteria and viruses cause disease.

Understand how bacteria and viruses cause disease.

Amidst the recent COVID-19 outbreak, Theo10 Moisturising Hand Sanitizers have been a hit-product in Singapore. We’re constantly making efforts to play a part in the crisis by providing Hand Sanitizers to not only our customers, but also to schools and our dear community such as Singapore Red Cross and the North West District which our Founder and Chief Operation Officer (COO) serves on. However, despite the high demand of Hand Sanitizers, do you know how does Hand Sanitisers actually work and what are some of the unique features?

Firstly, let us understand how bacteria and viruses cause disease. Bacteria and viruses are microbes (germs) which are very different to each other in terms of it’s structures and functions. Bacteria can grow on cell-free media. They have rigid cell walls that are susceptible to the action of antibiotics and they can be seen growing in colonies under the view of a microscope. Viruses, however, are 10 to 100 times smaller than bacteria. They cannot be seen in strains except with an electron microscope and they can only grow in artificial media containing living cells. The former and the latter have a different structure to bacteria and are not susceptible to antibiotics. Though the structural differences between bacteria and viruses, they can cause disease in similar ways: they invade and multiply within the host by evading the immune system.

Viruses tend to target specific tissues and cells in the body. For example, the influenza virus has a predilection for the respiratory tract, hepatitis viruses target the liver, poliovirus targets the motor neurones of the spinal cord and rotavirus multiplies in the gut. Symptoms of a viral infection may be subtle. Dengue virus, Ross river virus, measles and rubella infections are associated with fever and a widespread red rash, chicken pox and herpes simplex viruses are associated with blistering and often rashes.

Bacteria, however, tend to be less tissue-specific than viruses. They can cause a variety of infections once they have invaded the host. These bacterial infections are often manifested by the presence of pus. Systemic symptoms such as fevers, chills, pain, swelling and loss of function occurs when bacteria invade and multiply.

Once bacteria and viruses have invaded the host, they can multiply readily. If there is an immunity imbalance in the host, the microbe is infectious. Small numbers of microbes are capable of causing illness, a large number of microbes can paralyse or overcome the immune system, attacking the body from the inner system, hence resulting into a disease.

Thus, the main objective of Hand Sanitisers is to kill germs, especially microbes, and maintain good hygiene and cleanliness so as to minimise risk of contracting viruses. It works by not killing microbial cells. We use at least 70 percent of ethyl alcohol to ensure that the concentration of alcohol is extremely effective in killing germs— up to 99.99% of the germs can be eliminated (Proven by the ALS report). The alcohol disrupts the membrane of the virus and bacteria and stops them from mutating/multiplying hence preventing a full evasion of the body and weakening of the immune system. At the same time, we ensure that the alcohol content is not too strong for kids and people with extremely sensitive skin. For a virus, sanitizers work by disrupting the virus’s outer coat. For bacteria, they work by disrupting its cell membrane. Our Hand Sanitisers are definitely an essential front-line protection against the virus and even H1N1 disease. The alcohol evaporates after 10 seconds, leaving you with a cooling effect as well as a non-sticky and non- watery effect on your skin. It acts as a germ-killing agent and is definitely the preferred option for kids and people with extremely sensitive skin. This distinguishes our Hand Sanitisers from other commercial brands. 

We do also understand that some people will experience dry skin after using Hand Sanitisers. To help with this, we formulated a list of ingredients which comprises of concentrated Aloe Vera, Vitamin E essential oil and witch hazel to moisturise the area and to prevent moisture loss. These 3 ingredients have also been proven to boost healthy skin and repair damaged skin cells. Aloe Vera also helps to accelerate wound healing, increase collagen production in the skin which helps with wrinkle reduction, providing a more youthful looking and radiant skin. It provides skin with elasticity and also replaces dead skin cells. We also use orchid and white tea extract which leaves a pleasant and light smell.

The Theo10 team will like to encourage everyone to stay safe and to practice good hygiene. As a Singapore-based company, Theo10 will be able to respond quickly and efficiently to sudden situations. We remain thankful for those who have supported us from the beginning and our newly joined family members. We truly appreciate your support. 

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